托福阅读逻辑出题点解析:分类别逻辑得分要点

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托福阅读中,分类别逻辑也是常考查的高频逻辑之一。主观题和客观题目都有涉及,但以客观题为主。

(1)如TPO中的这道细节题

Paragraph 2:During wakefulness, breathing is controlled by two interacting systems. The first is an automatic, metabolic system whose control is centered in the brain stem. It subconsciously adjusts breathing rate and depth in order to regulate the levels of carbon dioxide (C02,) and oxygen (02,), and the acid-base ratio in the blood. The second system is the voluntary, behavioral system. Its control center is based in the forebrain, and it regulates breathing for use in speech, singing, sighing, and so on. It is capable of ignoring or overriding the automatic, metabolic system and produces an irregular pattern of breathing.

题目:According to paragraph 2, all of the following are true of the voluntary breathing system EXCEPT:

选项A :It has its control center in the brain stem

这个段落里将two interacting systems 分成两个类别,题目是找出不属于第二个类别的表述,选项A属于第一个类别特点,选项的设置采用了张冠李戴。

(2)再如TPO中的这道细节题

Paragraph 5 :The causes of this population rebound are consequences of other human actions. First, the major predators of deer---wolves, cougar, and lynx--have been greatly reduced in numbers. Second, conservation has been insured by limiting times for and types of hunting. But the most profound reason for the restoration of high population numbers has been the gate of the forests. Great tracts of lowland country deforested by logging, fire, or both have become ideal feeding grounds of deer.

题目:Which of the following is NOT mentioned in paragraph 5 as a factor that has increased deer populations?

选项:D

A.A reduction in the number of predators

B.Restrictions on hunting

C.The effects of logging and fire

D.Laws that protected feeding grounds of deer

这个段落里将原因分成三个方面,选项D属于未提到的原因。

(3)再如TPO中的这道修辞目的题

Paragraph 3: The first wells were drilled into the Ogallala during the drought years of the early 1930's. The ensuing rapid expansion of irrigation agriculture, especially from the 1950's onward, transformed the economy of the region. More than 100,000 wells now tap the Ogallala. Modern irrigation devices, each capable of spraying 4.5 million liters of water a day, have produced a landscape dominated by geometric patterns of circular green islands of crops. Ogallala water has enabled the High Plains region to supply significant amounts of the cotton, sorghum, wheat, and corn grown in the United States. In addition, 40 percent of American grain-fed beef cattle are fattened here.

题目In paragraph 3, why does the author provide the information that 40 percent of American cattle are fattened in the High Plains?

选项C:To provide another example of how water from the Ogallala has transformed the economy of the High Plains .

段落里分类别描述了农业灌溉改变当地经济的不同方面的表现,题目正是in addition所在句,即该段的最后一个方面,同时结合修辞目的题的特点,分类前的主旨句(该段2句)就是答案。

分类别逻辑词还有诸如:Also, too, besides, furthermore, moreover, additionally, again,as well as , in addition, what is more, first ---next/ second --third/ last, in the first place, to begin with , for one thing-----for another thing, 希望大家多关注阅读中的分类别逻辑,通过给出的逻辑词迅速把握文章框架,除此之外,写作里也可以多借鉴阅读里经常考察的逻辑词,使你的文章更严密。


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